By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This ebook offers the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by means of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the made from large research via the authors and individuals in box equipment and team research classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters masking the segmental phonology, tone process, morphology, and sentence constitution, by means of appendices at the Nzadi humans and historical past and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. ahead of this paintings, Nzadi had no longer even been pointed out within the literature, and at present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the research of Nzadi is its enormous grammatical simplification, leading to buildings rather diverse from these of canonical Bantu languages. even if Nzadi has misplaced lots of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun category contract in genitive buildings. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet accomplished grammar presents vast insurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that may be of power curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this sector of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, basic linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
Pity’ Absorption of the final L of (L)HL appears to apply whenever two words with these tones follow each other in succession (and without a major break or pause). Thus, the same tonal absorption takes place between a verb and an object noun or between object nouns. 16] /ndé â tûm okáàr òNkàán/ ! /ndé â sûm okáàr òNkàán/ ! ndé â túm òkáár òNkàán ‘he has sent the woman a book’ ndé â súm òkáár òNkàán ‘he has bought the woman a book’ Absorption of the H of LH is, on the other hand, more complicated.
36] mì ô búl ndé mì ó búl ndé mì ó búl n@dé mì ê búl bç& mì é búl bç& mì é búl bç^ ‘I have hit him/her’ / ‘I have hit them’ ‘I hit him/her’ / ‘I hit them’ ‘I am hitting him/her’ / ‘I am hitting them’ As seen, a+o ! o, a+e ! e, o+e ! e, and e+o ! o. 37] osim + é + muur osim + é + ibaa osim + é + oNgyEn ! ! osim e múùr osim ibáà osim oNgyE^n 31 ‘the person’s rope’ ‘the man’s rope’ ‘the stranger’s rope’ At first it might seem that /é/ is present only when followed by a consonant, as in the first example; however, the tone changes on the noun show that it is definitely there, but deleted.
5. pEtpE@t ‘softness’ diNdíN ‘middle of night’ Phonological rules A number of phonological rules affect vowels and consonants (also tones—see Chapter 3). Most of these are morphophonemic in the sense that they merge contrasting segments. 1. Vowels The major processes which affect vowels are vowel coalescence, shortening, centralization, vowel harmony, and nasalization. The first two refer to processes that apply to vowel + vowel 30 A Grammar of Nzadi sequences, while the third concerns the realization of /e/ as [I] or [U] in casual speech.
A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo by Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu