Download PDF by Trevor I. Williams: A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century,

By Trevor I. Williams

ISBN-10: 0198581556

ISBN-13: 9780198581550

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Read or Download A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II PDF

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Extra info for A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II

Sample text

The task of fairing the various sections of the ship, that is, making certain they were uniform and consistent, was solved by drawing the ship full scale S HI P B U I L D I NG 7 5 I on the mould-loft floor, a procedure that gradually gave way in modern yards to Yo—scale lofting. The lines thus drawn full scale could be made readily available; they were either copied on scrieve boards, which were then used to determine the shape of the frames, or templates were prepared giving informa­ tion for the preparation of plates.

31 I. TYPES DESI GN' time immemorial wood was the only material used in shipbuilding because it was readily available throughout the world and was easily worked with simple hand tools. Wooden ships were transversely framed and covered by planks which were fixed to the wooden frames by bolts or screws of copper, iron, or steel. Although their subdivision was poor and their stability often inadequate some wooden ships were still being built at the end of the nineteenth century (Fig. 1). Generally speaking, however, their history belongs to earlier volumes of this work.

U. u. Taken in conjunction with improvements in resistance and propulsion this means that the efficiency of marine propulsion as a whole improved about eight-fold during those 50 years. In 1950 approximately 30 per cent, by gross tonnage, of world merchant ships were driven by diesel engines. Steam turbines and diesel engines are now being slowly replaced, almost exclusively in warships, by gas turbines and— in a very few instances— nuclear-powered machinery. The gas turbine system, which eliminates the need for steam as a transfer medium, has been slowly developed for marine use.

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A History of Technology. Volume VII, The Twentieth Century, c. 1900 to c. 1950. Part II by Trevor I. Williams

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