By M. Y. Han

ISBN-10: 9812560343

ISBN-13: 9789812560346

This ebook provides the fundamental facets of relativistic quantum box idea, with minimum use of arithmetic. It covers the improvement of quantum box idea from the unique quantization of electromagnetic box to the gauge box idea of interactions between quarks and leptons.Aimed at either scientists and non-specialists, it calls for just some rudimentary wisdom of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formula of Newtonian mechanics and a simple figuring out of the targeted concept of relativity and quantum mechanics.

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**Additional resources for A Story of Light. A Short Introduction to Quantum Field Theory of Quarks and Leptons**

**Example text**

To sum up, when we quantize a ﬁeld, it turns into a ﬁeld operator that consists of creation and annihilation operators of the quantum of that ﬁeld. In the case of an electromagnetic ﬁeld, the classical ﬁeld of the four-vector potential turns into creation and annihilation operators for the quantum of that ﬁeld, the photon. In the case of matter ﬁelds, we ﬁrst reinterpret the one-particle relativistic quantum mechanical wave equations as equations for classical matter ﬁelds and then carry out the quantization.

N for a system with n degrees of freedom is taken to the limit n → ∞ and in that limit the values of a ﬁeld at each point of space are to be considered as independent generalized coordinates. Consider a simple mechanical example of a continuous string: the vertical displacement function, say, ρ(x, t), stands for the amplitude of displacements of the continuous string at position x and at time t and its values at each position can be taken as independent generalized coordinates. The discrete index i of the generalized coordinates for point mechanics is replaced by the continuous coordinate variable x, and the ﬁelds themselves — Aµ (x) of the electromagnetic ﬁeld, φ(x) of 41 42 A Story of Light the Klein–Gordon ﬁeld, ψα (x) of the Dirac ﬁeld, and so on — take the place of generalized coordinates.

In the Heisenberg picture, the wavefunction is time-independent and is related to that of the Schr¨ odinger picture by ψH ≡ ψS (0) and the commutators between q and p become, for an arbitrary time t, [qj (t), pk (t)] = iδjk [qj (t), qk (t)] = [pj (t), pk (t)] = 0. In the continuum language of ﬁelds and conjugate momenta, they become [φ(x, t), φ(x , t)] = [π(x, t), π(x , t)] = 0 [φ(x, t), π(x , t)] = iδ 3 (x − x ) where the Dirac delta function replaces δjk and is deﬁned by d3 x δ 3 (x − x )f (x ) = f (x).

### A Story of Light. A Short Introduction to Quantum Field Theory of Quarks and Leptons by M. Y. Han

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