By Xiuli Wang
The function of traditional fuel in assembly the realm strength call for has been expanding due to its abundance, versatility, and fresh burning nature. hence, new gasoline exploration, box improvement, and creation actions are lower than means. this can be very true in areas the place normal fuel used to be (until lately) labelled as 'stranded'. simply because a good portion of typical fuel reserves world-wide can be found throughout our bodies of water, gasoline transportation turns into a subject matter. we're facing many special matters and dealing with many demanding situations within the whole 'food chain' (upstream to midstream and downstream) of traditional fuel engineering. This necessitates a bridge of the expertise gaps in a couple of very important components: the original new applied sciences comparable to assorted interpretation of 3-D seismic in ordinary gasoline exploration; the categorical standards in fuel good drilling; the necessity for the hydraulically fracturing of excessive permeability fuel good to avoid the wear and tear yet most significantly to lessen turbulence as a result of excessive good deliverability; ordinary gasoline sea-going transportation similar to liquefied normal gasoline (LNG) and compressed usual gasoline (CNG); gasoline conversion and garage; and, replacement and competing power resources. All of those new matters and demanding situations haven't been addressed extensive in any current books. one more reason why we positioned this e-book jointly is predicated on our observations of younger execs and graduate scholars. With the facility of present computing know-how, many businesses are supplying diverse software program to resolve engineering difficulties. Many younger engineers and scholars are reliable at operating courses and plotting attractive graphs with out realizing what the numbers and figures suggest. by some means humans have misplaced their primary talents to take on difficulties with out utilizing a working laptop or computer. right here, in addition to addressing the complicated engineering concerns regarding average gasoline, we additionally supply equations besides examples and certain calculation strategies of basic chemical and petroleum engineering difficulties. This e-book can function a reference booklet for all engineers within the power company in addition to a textbook for college students in petroleum and chemical engineering curricula and within the education departments of a big crew of businesses.
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Additional resources for Advanced Natural Gas Engineering
Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co. P. D. Beggs. 1974. Two-phase flow in pipes. Intercomp Course, The Hague. , D. G. C. Alden. 1948. Natural gasoline and the volatile hydrocarbons. NGAA, Tulsa, OK. , R. B. Burrows. 1954. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. Trans. AIME 201: 264–272. E. I. Stiel. 1958. The viscosity of non-polar gas mixtures at moderate and high pressures. AICHE J. 4: 430–6. R. 1965. Computer routine treats gas viscosity as a variable. Oil & Gas J. (August): 141. A. B. Robinson.
While these properties can be measured in the laboratory, it is usually expensive and time consuming. Data and graphical representations have been developed and are referred to in this chapter. Early calculations of properties, using graphs, were generally done by hand as shown in this chapter. Some of these graphs date back to early 1940s. With the advent of computers, many correlations have been developed based on the published data. Thus, properties can be computerized and numerically solved.
These properties are simply the summation of the individual contributions of the component gases, weighted by their molar fractions. This is based on the classical thermodynamics law for ideal mixtures and Dalton’s law of partial pressures. Table 1–3 gives the results of this calculation. 02 1 * Use the properties of n-octane. 69. 855. Then, from Eq. 34 ft 3 . 4, 000 OPTION 2—Obtain ppc and Tpc from gas specific gravity. 94. 65. From Figure 1–9, ppc = 670 psi and Tpc = 375 R, which compare with 671 psi and 378 R calculated above.
Advanced Natural Gas Engineering by Xiuli Wang