Algebraic and Geometric Topology - download pdf or read online

By James R. Milgram

ISBN-10: 0821814338

ISBN-13: 9780821814338

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Extra info for Algebraic and Geometric Topology

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We need a simple and reliable way to refer to situations like these. " Definition. Two numbers a and b are called congruent modulo m provided that a and b give the same remainder when divided by m, or, the difference a - b is divisible by m. We indicate that a is congruent to b modulo m by writing a == b (modm) and refer to such an expression as a congruence modulo m. Obviously, if a is divisible by m, then a == 0 (modm). The converse is also true. 15. We can add two or more congruences modulo m term by term in exactly the same way we add equations.

30. :5 ~ = _x_v_v Un an n + (-It-x-. 36) collects all principal parts of the terms of S(x). These principal parts form a geometric progression with common ratio x/a. Their sum converges if and only if Ixl < a Further, we will tacitly assume that x satisfies this inequality. 36) displays the sum of all corrections. Apart from the sign, another noteworthy difference between the terms of this series and the corresponding terms of the initial series comes from the behavior of their denominators. Clearly, the product una 2n grows more rapidly than Un as n increases.

For example, if we retain the first four terms of 8(3), we get 8~3+ 1 1 UIU2U3 U2U3U4 +_1_ U3U4U5 1 U4U5U6 111 1 = 3 + 1 . 1 . 2 - ~ + 2 . 3 . 5 - 3 . 5 . 358, and the error . 002. 28. A clever handling of Fibonacci numbers may increase the speed of conver- gence of the process employed in determining more accurate estimates of the limit 8. 34), 8 = 41 _ ~8(5). 12 It should be noticed that the series 8(5) 2 converges more rapidly than 8(3). 34 Chapter 1 We can also take the alternating sum above, and prove that 8(7), analogous to 8(3) and 8(5) 8 = 11749 _ 60 8 (7) 5280 11 ' and so on.

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Algebraic and Geometric Topology by James R. Milgram

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