By K. Feste
What coverage is better for the us to minimize the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? contemporary American presidents have utilized substitute clash answer ways. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, speaking difficult yet infrequently retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter process and the worldwide conflict on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq replicate this method. Obama brought a 3rd replacement: challenge fixing and lengthening peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the tactic be successful? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage in the course of the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in a number of speeches introduced through those leader executives to spotlight and examine their clash solution options.
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Additional resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
A source defines the essential problem and outlines a set of considerations purportedly relevant to the issue. A frame is a central organizing idea for making sense of relevant world events and suggesting what is at issue. S. support for the other side). Nelson, Oxley, and Clawson (1997) show how the conflict in former Yugoslavia has been framed both as a genocidal war of imperialism between a powerful and blood thirsty invader and its helpless neighbor, and as a centuries-old ethnic and religious dispute that has only recently flared up after communist domination of the region vanished.
Bush consistently framed the opposition between the United States and Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, and the Taliban as a conflict between good and evil. ” Bush also repeatedly framed the opposition to the United States as one between freedom and democracy on one side versus terror and oppression on the other. S. actions. Leaders use framing to build support for peace and war initiatives. S. presidential administration’s War on Terror had four themes: good versus evil, civilization versus barbarism, the nature of the new enemy, and the nature of the war, noting that although the first two elements made it into press accounts of the president’s speech or actions for about two months after the 9/11 attacks, the press underplayed these elements after that, even though Bush repeatedly stressed them.
Thus, if a conflict is framed antagonistically, solutions will be sought accordingly, adversarial conflict processing makes creative and cooperative change impossible, so strategies of fighting and conflict avoidance will dominate. Frames constitute parties’ conceptual or cognitive views of particular situations. Framing gives meaning and provides contextual interpretation. To comprehend a statement or an action, it is necessary to identify or construct a context or frame for that event. Frames allow decision makers to see coherence through a maze of activity; to imagine how things weave together into an understandable picture.
America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency) by K. Feste