By Norbert Berkowitz
An advent to Coal Technology thoroughly describes coal know-how examine and improvement. Coal is a vital basic gasoline in the course of the international and study has unfold from coal liquefaction and gasification to applied sciences for constructing fresh coal. The booklet is split into components. half I makes a speciality of the formation and primary houses of coal. half II addresses contemporary advancements and critical technical approaches akin to the instruction and combustion options of unpolluted coal, environmental administration of coal, and quickly pyrolysis. This moment version builds upon and updates the winning remedy provided in Dr. Berkowitzs esteemed 1979 ebook.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Coal Technology
For pétrographie analysis, use is made of the fact that the refractive index n and the absorptive index k of coal maceráis vary systematically with coal rank, and that maceráis can therefore be uniquely characterized by determining their reflectivity (or "reflectance") R. This parameter is defined by R = [(n- n'f + n2k2]/[(n + n'f + n2k2] 26 2 Compositions Mîcroli thotype Group VITRAIN vi t r i n e r t i t e ma ce r i t e Principal Macérai Group(s) - El - 0 ♦ m 0 ♦ m + -—E ♦ Ξ □ m FUSAIN- Ξ ♦ m ■□ DURAIN CLARA IN ( vitrinertite *+ f trimacerite -« + m •E ♦ [vj + [T] 0 + Q J i r r e g u l a r l y a l t e r n a t i n g , th'rn l a y e r s o f variously proportioned v i t r a i n - durain mixtures Fig.
1). 1 shows how this quantity varies with rank. 2°C in a desiccator over a fully saturated aqueous potassium sulfate solution, which maintains a relative humidity of 97 to 40 ■M C 0) +J §30 °100 95 90 85 80 75 70 Carbon, % daf Fig. 1 Generalized variation of capacity (or bed) moisture contents with rank. 32 2 Compositions 98% (ASTM D 1412-74; ISO 1018; Krumin ). In contrast, as received moisture contents relate to the amounts of water in samples as submitted for analysis, and these may be substantially smaller than bed moistures (if the samples have been allowed to partly dry) or greater (if they contain a significant quantity of excess surface water).
After Kutzner  ; by permission of M. and R. \: - -C CL '£ 1 000 03 — ~~ — ~Ί H ·· 1 1 1 • 0) H 1 r l a: i znn Bed Moisture, % Fig. 2 The variation of bed moisture contents of high-rank coals with depth of burial ; Saar region,1West Germany. Data relate to 10 boreholes. (After Damberger et al. ; by permission of M. and R. 0 M o i s t u r e , % daf 0 ] ν \ J 8θ 85 Carbon, % daf Γ \" *M 1 fflu 90 7500 8000 8500 C a l o r i f i c Value, kcal/kg ash-free Fig. 3 The variation of rank indicators with depth of burial; Nordlicht Ost I borehole; West Germany.
An Introduction to Coal Technology by Norbert Berkowitz