By J. B. Walter
Re-creation of this easy-to-read textual content has been up-to-date and revised to hide new details on scientific genetics, immune reaction, and comprises the newest findings in AIDS. Acquaints the reader with primary points of forte components together with bacteriology, biochemistry, hematology, radiology, and surgical procedure. sincerely reproduced pictures, micrographs, and line drawings make clear innovations offered within the textual content
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T h e ovum provides an excellent example of how protein synthesis can be inhibited, only to be switched on suddenly by the event of fertilization. The structure of the gene and the processes of translation and transcrip tion described above are applicable to bacteria but not to animals, including man, in which the details are far more complex. In humans there is much more DNA present in the chromosomes than appears to be necessary to encode for all the proteins that are present in the body. The length of DNA Exon Gene Intron DNA Transcription Precursor RNA Molecule jrdfìJL I I To Cytoplasm Excision of Intervening Sequences mRNA Figure 2-16.
Over 40 of these highly specific enzymes are known. , by electrophoresis). , SL specific mRNA that corresponds to the gene under examination. The mRNA is labelled with a radioactive marker so that the fraction of DNA containing the desired gene can be identified and spliced into a plasmid that has been opened by the same restrictive endonuclease (Fig. 3-5). This plasmid is inserted into a bacterium that when cultured can produce large quantities of the gene DNA and its product for analysis. This and similar recombinant DNA techniques, sometimes termed genetic engineering, have great practical as well as commercial possibilities; in the future, bacterial cultures will no doubt be used to produce human polypeptides and proteins — hormones, interferon, etc.
These are termed structural genes. , no mRNA is produced. Figure 2-15 illustrates a simple scheme based on the hypothesis of Jacob and Monod. Each group of genes, or operon, is controlled by a closely associated gene called the operator gene. This itself is regulated by another gene, the regulator gene, which through its own mRNA leads to the formation in the cytoplasm of a protein (repressor substance), which suppresses the operator gene. The regulator gene may itself be inhibited, and in that event, the operator is derepressed, the genes of the operon are allowed to act, mRNA is produced, and protein synthesis proceeds.
An Introduction to the Principles of Disease by J. B. Walter